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Renewal: A Pho 

id to the Oklahoma* 

ining/Citizens Present 

n Workshop <*i 

34 Implementation and Solutions 

rly Actions 
e Murrah Building 
National Design Tea' 


ateline^ April* 19, 
ma City, 
The Alfred RfMurra 
F$3efal Building was 
estro^effm a bomb bias 
tob^were killed 
mafily federal employees.' - 
mSdpeasSSiQre were * ,,£ * 

. More than 300 
uildings^srere damaged f » .' 
in a 20- square block 
area surrounding the site 
jiTN^yjh' Downtown./* ' 

Oklahoma City along the 

Sqnta Fe trackslObking - 
,»' northwest, Fall 1889^.- 

Inset: Bird's-eye view of __ 

Oklahoma City looking , .^ 
- northeast to southwest 
> toward North Canadian 

River on the horizon. 

Drawn in 1890, one year 

after the land run. 

Indian Tuwnwvf • 

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Left: Bank buildings, 1 930 
Above: Downtown, I 95 7 

The City of 



September 25, 1905 

The Honorable Jane Alexander 
( lhairman 

National Endowment for the Arts 
1 100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW 
Washington, DC 205(H) 

Dear Ms. Alexander: 

On behalf of the citizens of the ( lity of Oklahoma City. I would like to recognize and thank the 
National Endowment for the Arts and its federal partners, local professionals and property owners, 
the national design team, and all others who contributed their time and ideas to make the July 1995. 
workshop in Oklahoma City and this final report possible. Your unsolicited and generous assistance 
has given us hope and direction as we begin to recover from the April 1 ( >. 1995, disaster. 

The National Endowment for the Arts help following the disaster provided a forum that energized 
our local community to come together and plan for the future of our downtown area. The combined 
perspectives provided by a partnership between team members with national and international experience 
and local participants resulted in strong and cohesive recommendations that brought together the best 
of local and national experiences. This process, once again, reminded Oklahoma City that our community 
extends far beyond our city limits. 

This report, along with more detailed plans that are scheduled to follow, will guide us as we focus our 
efforts on rebuilding the damaged area. It provides a flexible framework that will help coordinate 
countless decisions that will be made b\ the private sector, non-profit organizations, and local, state, 
and federal governments. This report also emphasizes the importance of good urban design and 
preservation ol significant historic buildings as a lasting framework for rebuilding the areas devastated 
by the bomb and for revitalizing our downtown. 

Please accept my heartfelt gratitude to all those who contributed to the workshop and this report. 


Ronald .1. Norick 

200 North Walker, Oklahoma City. Oklahoma 73102 • 405/297-2424 • FAX 405/297-2570 

ackground to the Oklahoma City Workshop 

On April 27-29, 1995, the National 
Endowment for the Arts' Design 
Program hosted its 18th Mayors' 
Institute on City Design in Charleston, 
South Carolina. 

Twice a year, the Mayors Institute invites seven or 
eighl mayors from cities across the count) to ;i 
two-and-one-half-day symposium on cit) design 
with a resource team composed of eighl i<» ten 
nationally known architects, planners and urban 
development experts. The symposium is organized 
around presentations and roundtable discussions. 

\i each meeting, mayors (withoul members "I 
their staff) and designers discuss specific problems 
facing cities and examine a broad range of ideas. 
precedents, and improvement strategies. Each 
mayor presents a case stud) of a critical issue 
from his/her city, and members of the resource 
team identif) issues and discuss potential solutions. 

Mayor Ronald Norick of Oklahoma Cit) was 
scheduled to participate in die Mayors Institute 
in Charleston. The human traged) thai Mayor 
Norick was grappling with was fresh in everyone's 
mind and hear). From across the nation, cities 
lent their rescue crews, emergency medical teams 
and supplies to assisl Oklahoma Cit) with ihi^ 
unprecedented disaster. Despite the immediate 
gravity of the situation in Oklahoma City. Mayor 
Norick was already looking to the future and 
honored his coininiiineiii to attend the Mayors 
Institute. Because of (he unique circumstances, 
the mayor was allowed to bring his Director 
ol Planning Garner Stoll. The) were searching 
for ways to address the physical devastation to 

North Downtown and begin the rebuilding process. 
Ai the meeting. Samina Quraeshi. director of 
the Design Program, gave Mayor Norick a letter 
expressing the sympath) of die \ris Endowmenl 
and offering assistance m the mayor and the people 
ol Oklahoma City. She suggested the possibilit) 
ol organizing a design workshop. The workshop 
would create an opportunit) for a dialogue dial 
would bring city officials and citizens together 
with federal agenc) representatives to develop a 
shared vision for die future of North Dow mow n 
dial would rebuild a community, noi simph, recon- 
struct buildings. On \la\ I. 1995. Mayor Norick 
seni a letter to Ms. Quraeshi accepting, on be- 
half of (he citizens of Oklahoma ( iity, die Vrts 
Endowmenl s offer to organize a design workshop 
io address design and planning issues in response 
io die physical devastation experienced l>\ the «ii\. 

The \iis Endowmenl immediatel) sought a 
partnership with sister federal agencies to harness 
die resources ol ihe federal government. I he 
General Services Administration. Departmenl 
of I lousing and I rban Development, and the 
Departmenl of transportation agreed to participate 
and support (he project. Each ol these agencies 

had lost employees in die bombing, and each one 
had a commitment and responsibilit) to 1 1< -I | > die 
cit) rebuild. 

To ensure dial (he workshop had broad communit) 
supporl and was organized locally, die Design 
Program sent a fact-finding nam to Oklahoma 
Cit) in mid-Ma) to meet with public and private 
leaders and die local design communit) to develop 
a consensus on the best ami most appropriate 

format for the design workshop. The team consisted 
of Ms.Qunie.slii: Thomas Grooms, program 
manager of the Aits Endowment s Federal Design 
Improvement Program; Hugh Hardy, a nationally 
known architect and memher of the National 
Council on the Arts: Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, 
a widely respected architect who had mobilized 
designers and communities to rebuild after the 
widespread devastation caused in the southeastern 
U.S. by Hurricane Hugo in 1989; and Virginia 
Benson, a strategic planner who works with citizens 
and governments in cities and regions across the 
country to build public consensus on complex 
community building issues. The team was joined 
in Oklahoma City by regional representatives of 
the partnering federal agencies. 

Flic site visit was hosted by the city's Department 
of Planning, the Arts Council of Oklahoma City, 
and Second Century/Oklahoma City Urban 
Renewal Authority. At the first meeting with 
community and business leaders. Tiana Douglas, 
president of Second Century, urged the National 
Endow men! for the Arts to begin the process as 
quickly as possible. 

We must take charge of knitting I he 

northern edge of our downtown hack 

into the fa brie oj I his community. 

The expertise <>j the National Endowment 

far the iris' Design Program will 

be oj great benefit as we turn this evil 

into good for our community.... 

planning is the process of building hope 

and for this reason. I ask you to 

more as quickly as possible to help 

us get underway. 

The consensus from these meetings was to 
engage in a thoughtful, inclusive planning process 
that would engage the energies and talents ol the 
local design community, business owners and 
interested citizens. 

The project goals were to: 

• Create hope and encourage reinvestment in the 
damaged areas. 

• Provide a design context to rebuild the area 
(which would be needed when public and private 
funds became available). 

•Provide a forum for broad community involvement. 
•Place the memorial planning process in a 
broader context. 

Mayor Norick endorsed the idea for an inclusive 
process and immediately issued a call to the 
community for its active participation. On June 30. 
Susan Parrott of the Journal Record reported on 
the response to the mayor's call for ideas: 

Some ol the ulcus cue scrawled 

on paper napkins. Others are intricately 

deluded. Same contain handwritten 

notes of encouragement, at hers arc 

strong in word and belief. They range 

from lite clumsy drawings ol a 
child lo interpretations of professional 

architects, liter hold the key lo 
redevelopment <>/ u bomb-damaged city. 

These ideas, combined with the analysis ol District 
Teams, formed the basis for the public presentations 
and work at a July 2-t-2~>. 1995, design workshop 
held at Leadership Square in Oklahoma ( !ity. 


Public Planning/Citizen Presentations 

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Vb/unteers were organized 
into six District Teams. Each 
focused on a specific area 
of North Downtown. 

Iii preparation for the design workshop. Mayor 
Norick issued a call to the citizens of Oklahoma 
City to submit their ideas and \ ision for rebuild- 
ing the city. In launching the planning process 
for North Downtown. Mayor Norick said: 

Planning the rebuilding <>l the area is very 

important to the at I in- community. 

The activity of planning for the future is 

a crucial step in the healing process. 

lie must explore what was in the urea. 

what remains, and what, should he there. 

This planning process will utilize 

the tremendous talents and energies oj our 

citizens, our local design community. 

and the assistance oj national groups 

(National Endowment for the irts) that has 

so generously been offered to us. 

This challenging statement initiated an intensive 
strategic planning process that involved citizens, 
local architects, engineers, planners, property owners, 
residents, community leaders and representatives 
ol financing institutions. Volunteers were organized 
iiiln six District Teams, and each focused on a 
specific area of North Downtown. Over a three- 
week period, each team examined the critical issues, 
discerned opportunities and explored concepts to 
rehuild its area. 

The planning process focused on both short- 
and long-term issues. 

• What could be done immediately to stabilize 
the area and allow local businesses and residents 
to begin the recovery process? 

'What are the economic opportunities, quality ol 
life, land use. and mechanisms for implementation 
that will rebuild and sustain the ana? 

The District Teams' findings, along with 
submissions from the community, were presented 
to the national design team organized by the 
National Endowment for the Arts at the public 
workshop held in the gallery of the Leadership 
Square complex. 

W bile each of the districts presented unique 
design challenges and opportunities, there 
were several common themes that ran through 
all six presentations. 

• Businesses musl be stabilized to prevent further 

'Anchor tenants will strengthen the economic 
attractiveness of the area. 

• Streets must be landscaped and made pedestrian 

■Each district must build on its own unique identity. 

• Residential development in the downtown 
should be considered. 

'The rebuilding effort should be guided by an 
organization whose onl\ locus is North Downtown. 


The main challenge for the 
area immediately surrounding 
the federal building will be to 
re-establish the employee base. 

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Area 1 , Team 1 


The area immediately surrounding 

the Murrah Federal Building 

The team proposed the Journal Record building 
as a future site for the Oklahoma I historical 
Society Museum. 

In opening the presentation. Nancy McNayr, a 
professional planner and the team captain, said. 
"The main challenge for the area immediately 
surrounding the federal building will be to 
re-establish the employee base. Re-investment 
and new development must be promoted to the 
area to lure tenants back. The District Team 
recommended a broad range of ideas to achieve 
its goal. The area should have a mix of civic-, 
business- and people-oriented uses. These would 
include churches, daycare, high-rise multi-family 
dwellings and daytime and nighttime activities. 
The area should create a link within the North 
Central Business District and with the adjacent 
areas. Greenways and pedestrian-level activities 
would add a vibrancy to the area. 

Key elements of the team s recommendations 
include the importance of recognizing the new 
role thai this area will play in Oklahoma City s 
economic future. In addition to its tourism potential. 
the area is immediately adjacent to the Central 
Business District and can provide a location for 
support services, mixed-use development and 
downtown housing. 

*ln December 1993. Oklahoma Cit) voters approved a five-year 
one-cent sales tax to fund the Metropolitan \rea Projects 
(MAPS) plan in Imild new and upgraded sports, recreation, 
cultural and convention facilities. The projects are located 
in ilit- cine area of the Central Business District. 

The team explored two development scenarios that 
would implement the recommendations. In both 
scenarios, the team recognized the importance of 
civic anchors. The YMCA. library and churches 
were seen as important anchors for the area. The 
learn encouraged the \ to renovate its existing 
building or rebuild in the area. The new library 
that will be built as [tail of the Metropolitan Area 
Projects (MAPS)* project was seen as an important 
civic project dull would serve a range of patrons 
from business to families. The team identified the 
importance ol pedestrian access on Fourth and 
Filth Streets and improved transit linkages along 
Harvev and Robinson Avenues. 





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The area bounded by North 
Broadway Avenue, from N.W. 4th 
to Broadway Circle and just north 
of N.W. I Oth Street 

The central area of focus was Broadway Avenue. 
Originally designed for ease of movement of a 
wagon with a lull team of horses. Broadway is 
better known in Oklahoma City as 'Automobile 
Alley. It has many 1 ( '2()s buildings, some designed 
by Solomon Andrew Layton. a nationally recognized 
Oklahoma (lily architect. Mr. Layton designed 
main of Oklahoma (lit\ r 's significant downtown 
buildings. A building inventory indicates that many 
ol the buildings are Classical Revival or Plains 
Commercial architecture, some with Art Deco 
details. The team recognized that the strengths 
of the district are its history, architecture and 
concentrated ownership. The area is also the 
gateway to downtown. 

Building on the strengths of the district, the team 
proposed that short-term actions would include 
developing a strong graphic and streetscape image 
for the area. 

Long-term actions were focused on enhancing 
the image ol the area through design and recruit- 
ment ol businesses and activities that support 
(he "Automobile Alley image. Inn activities that 
would bring a new energy to the area ranged from 
bringing back "cruise night to projecting outdoor 
movies on the side of buildings — making double 
use ol the large parking lots. 

The team recommended that 

r* 2 -!^] design guidelines for the area 
' — ILJ Ij ^ be developed that would 

transform the district into a 
pedestrian-friendly place. 


The area from 6th to 

9th Streets, the rear line of 

Harvey Street to the rear 

line of Broadway Avenue 

The district recommendations focused on the rol< 
oi (lie area as a buffer zone between downtown 
and the residential areas to the north. A buffer 
could be accomplished by creating a campus 
atmosphere with Robinson Avenue and ()th Street 
as promenades. The team recommended thai 
design guidelines for the area be developed that 
would transform the district into a pedestrian- 
friendly place. 

Recommendations included 
•Narrowing Robinson Avenue 
• Landscaping vacant properties to provide a 

visual separation between vacaul land and street 

•Developing guidelines for lighting, sidewalk 

improvements, signage and street furniture 

The team recognized the importance of bringing 
new energy to the area. Recommendations included 
creating ;i pedestrian-friendl) area with fewer 
hard surfaces and more landscaping, and creating 
opportunities for new businesses. As part of the 
team s brainstorming, the} explored die idea of 
creating a link between the Murrah Building site 
and activities lor children and families. A children s 
museum and children s playground could be 
located on the parking lots or vacant land on either 
side ol the Southwestern Bell Corporate Center. 

In addition to district recommendations, the 
team suggested that an ongoing planning process 
should be established to examine ways to 
strengthen neighborhood identities and create 
linkages between the districts and die Central 
Business District. The districts should develop 
their own distinct design criteria to strengthen 
and enhance the overall image and appeal ol 
the area. To facilitate development in North 
Downtown, die team recommended that the citj 
appoint a review committee to guide the planning 
and development process. 




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The area immediately surrounding 

St. Anthony's Hospital 

This area has a unique history. It was developed 
along' the streetcar line during the population 
boom of 1 ( )10 and was home to many hotels and 
boarding houses that sprang up to accommodate 
the influx of residents. District 4, while an integral 
part of North Downtown, derives its character and 
sense of place from the institutions that are located 
in and adjacent to the district. St. Anthonys 
Hospital is one of the important economic anchors 
in this area. Established in 1886 near the Murrah 
Building, it moved to its present location at the 
corner of Dewey and N.W. 10th Street in l ( )()o. 

In addition to St. Anthony's Hospital, other factors 
that contribute to the character and economic 
potential of the area include 

•Mercy Hospital, which has been vacant for more 
than 20 years, can be retrofitted lor institutional 
or commercial activities. 

•City Church, built in 188'). is the oldest church 
in the city and lias been a catalyst lor keeping 
people in the inner city for generations. 

•Broadway Avenue is the gateway to this area 
linking the Central Business District and the 
neighborhoods to the north. 

•Robinson Avenue/Church Row. the Professional 
Office Buildings and strong residential areas are 
immediately adjacent to the district. 
The team focused on improving the overall 
appearance of the area as a kin element to the 
short- and long-term economic development 
program. The area has a primarj customer base 

of approximately 2.000 professional and support 
staff and their customers and visitors. Demographics 
alone suggest a market potential for hospitality. 
retail and service industries. However, the area has 
been seen as unsafe and unattractive. This has 
prevented the area from realizing its potential. 

The team identified both short- and long-term 
actions to implement its recommendations. 

Short term 

• Improve the overall appearance and marketability 
of the area. 

•Maintain the existing vacant properties: keep 
grass mowed, prune trees and clear litter. 

•Renovate structures that face the major intersec- 
tions (Broadway and N.W 10th; N.W. 10th. 
Walker and Classen Boulevard). 

•Pave the sidewalks — add alternate textured 
surfaces similar to those already in use at 
St. Anthony's. 

• Add landscaping buffers to shield parking 
lots and other hard surfaces. 

•Create a change of surface at important 

• Add crosswalks and traffic islands to create 
a pedestrian-friendly environment. 

•Change traffic signalization to create a safer 
pedestrian and vehicular environment. 

In addition to the physical development, the 
District 4 Team echoed the recommendation thai 

North Downtown Vrea needed an organization to 
guide and encourage development. This organization 
might be modeled after the National Trusl for 
Historic Preservation's Main Streel Program or 
similar effort. 




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The teom looked beyond its 
immediate boundaries 
and recognized that the area's 
location and depressed 
property values should create 
a favorable opportunity for 

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The area bounded by 6th 

Street on the south, 8th Street walker avenue 

on the north, Hudson Avenue gateway 

on the east and Dewey Avenue 

on the west 

To develop a sense of the area's existing condition, 
the team reviewed its history, completed a physical 
inventory ol individual properties, photographed 
much of the area and conducted a telephone survey 
of the property owners and tenants. The telephone 
survey and input from team member property 
owners placed crime and lack of security at the top 
of the lis! of issues. Other issues include depressed 
and flat property values, vacant and boarded-up 
buildings, and damage to one of the key anchors 
(Brown Brokerage). The team looked beyond its 
immediate boundaries and recognized that the area's 
location (between St. Anthony's Hospital and the 
Central Business District, and only a few blocks 
from two of the city's finest central city neighbor- 
hoods) and depressed property values should create 
a favorable opportunity for redevelopment. 

In developing a revitalization plan for the area. 
the teams recommendations focused on several 
overall goals, as well as some short-term strategies 
to guide development. 


• Create a strong central axis for the revitalization 
effort by extending Walker Avenue as the 


• Continue landscaping, lighting, signage, street 
furniture and paving themes northward to H)th or 
loth Street to strengthen the image and improve 
access to St. Anthony s I lospital. 

•Create a pedestrian-friendly, well designed and 
landscaped area that connects North Downtown, 
the Near Northwest Neighborhoods and the 
development along the waterfront. 

•Reestablish a high-quality, diversified residential 
community from Dewey to Classen Boulevard. I he 
residential area will support a variety of services, 
entertainment, retail and eating establishments. 

• I se this once-in-a-lileliine opportunity to put into 
place a plan to develop an overall urban design 
and urban activity program for (he central city. 
This could include paving schemes, landscaped 

green belts, small parks and continuous walkways. 

Specific strategies to implement the long-term 
goals include: 

• Develop an association or organization to guide 

• Establish a ^Redevelopment Clearing I louse 
staffed by the planning department to provide up- 
to-date information on development opportunities. 

• Establish a zoning and design review to ensure 
that new development is appropriate to the overall 
development plan for the area. 

• Encourage seed money for revolving loans, mortgage 
buy-downs and other incentives to reinvestment. 

• Set up matching grants targeted to commercial 
properties to make improvements to the buildings 
street fronts. 

Team 5 stressed the importance ol a coordinated 
redevelopment effort thai looks beyond the 
boundaries of North Downtown to forge linkages 
with the surrounding medical community. Central 
Business District, iiewb emerging entertainment 
district along the riverfront and the central city 



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The area's close proximity to 
the Central Business District 
and adjacency to Sycamore 
Square creates a synergy 
of uses that would support 
residential development 

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The area bounded by Walker, 
Kerr and Dewey Avenues — 
directly adjacent to Sycamore 
Square, the Civic Center and 
Centennial Park 

Team () proposed that this area should be devel- 
oped as urban bousing with appropriate residential 
support services. Its close proxiniitv to the Central 
Business District and adjacency to Sycamore Squai 
creates a synergy of uses that would support 
residential development. 

Team b developed a range of projects thai would 
stimulate development in the area. Specific projects 

• Development of a downtown day-care center. 
The team suggested that the site owned by the 
Urban Renewal Authority near Sycamore Square 
and the Civic Center would be a good location 
for downtown workers as well as residents. 

• Creation of a pedestrian-friendly environment. 
Projects ranged bom extending Dewey Street 
to improving the streets, sidewalks, lighting. 
development along the alleys and creation ol a 
town square. The team focused on infrastructure 
improvements that would create an attractive 
gateway and create a residential feeling in the area. 

• Development of a Master Plan. A Master Plan 
would include phases of development for tin- 
area, design guidelines for signage and facades, 
and areas designated for parking, commercial. 
and residential sites. 

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Design Workshop 

Concurrent with the District 
Teams' planning process, the 
National Endowment for the Arts 
began planning for the design 

The design workshop would lotus on the area 
of North Downtown that had to be stabilized 
immediately to prevent irreversible economic 
decline. A vision needed to be developed that 
would create a sense of hope thai the area could 
be rebuilt — as something better than it was before 
April 19 — to realize its potential as the northern 
anchor of the ( lentral Business District. 

The National Endowmenl for the Arts, working 
collaboratively with the Mayor's office. Department 
of Planning. Arts Council of Oklahoma City and 
Second Century/Oklahoma City Urban Renewal 
Authority invited a multi- disciplinary national 
design team to participate in the two-day workshop. 

The team included: 

I [ugh Hardy. Architect 

Partner. Hardy. Holzman. Pfeiffer Associates 

Nancye Green. Graphic Designer 
Partner. Donovan and Green 

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, \rchiteci 

Partner. Duany and Plater-Zyberk. Architects 

and Town Planners 

Peter Walker. Landscape Architect 

Partner. Peter Walker William Johnson & Partners 

Jennifer Moulton. Director of Planning 

City of Denver, former President of I bstoric Denver 

Michael Donovan, Graphic Designer 
partner. Donovan and Green 

Virginia Benson. Public Participation 
principal. Community Design Exchange 

Federal agency participants included: 
Dale Lanzone. Director of Cultural and Environ- 
mental Affairs. General Services Administration 

Stephen Weatherford, Secretary's Representative. 
Southwest. Department of Housing and 
Urban Development 

Samina Quraeshi. Director. Design Program. 
National Endow nienl for the Arts 

Thomas Grooms. Program Manager. 
Federal Design Improvement. National 
Endowment for the Arts 

Jhe design workshop was opened by Mayor 
Norick with the challenge that this area was 
important to Oklahoma City and the nation. 
In launching the workshop, he said. 'The most 
important issue thai must be addressed immediately 
is restoring confidence and providing a roadmap 
for rebuilding, following the mayor, each ol the 
District Teams presented a summary of its find- 
ings to the national design team. I he local teams 
stressed the importance of economic re\ italization. 
preservation and reuse of the existing buildings, 
creation of a space that is enticing and Iriendh 
for pedestrians and visitors, exploration of 
opportunities lor new development patterns that 
include housing and pedestrian-friendl) streets. 
Mam of the teams stressed the importance ol 
locating civic/public anchors in the area that 
would signal to residents and business owners 
that this was a place to reinvest. 


Following the presentations, the national design 
team an<l other participants discussed how the site 
related to the overall city and, specifically, what 
other projects would support or compete with 
rebuilding efforts in North Downtown. 

As a resuh of these discussions, a consensus 
emergen! regarding the approach that the team 
would use to shape the design workshop process. 

The national design team would locus on 
►Context of the northern downtown site to other 
citv projects 

• Special places and corridors — anchors and themes 

• The Murrah Building sit< — what it is and its 
relationship to the overall study site 

• New anchors — criteria and possible location 
'Amenities — streetscapes, parks, lights 

• Implementation ideas — zoning, how to make 
it attractive to rebuilding, design guidelines, 
community associations/coalitions 

In addition to the specific element-- that would 
be examined, the national design team broke into 
two working groups. The first group examined the 
overall study site, and the second group focused 
on the Murrah Building site. 

It should be noted thai from the outsel of the design 
workshop, the team recognized thai discussion 
of the actual development of the Murrah Building 
site was outside of the scope of this project. Mayor 
Norick has appointed a broad-based citizen-- 
committee to begin dialogue on possible wavs to 
remember the \pril 1 ( > tragedy. This committee 
has just slatted work, with the first meeting taking 
place the week of the design workshop. 

The national design leant hit that it could offer 
ideas and concepts on how the area should lie 
stabilized and maintained until such time as the 
final decisions are made on use of the site. 



The national design team applauded the 
work of the District Teams.The District Teams 
had identified the strengths and opportunities 
in each of their areas and developed creative 
ideas that could be translated into achievable 
projects both short- and long-term. 

Several overarching themes emerged from the 
presentations. These included ;i recognition thai 
the rebuilding process would require a new way 
of looking iii ilic area. Prior to the disaster. 1 1 1 * - 
site was ;i downtown fringe area anchored l»\ 
the federal presence in the Murrah Building and 
courthouse and federal offices. Other anchors 
included the Journal Record. Southwestern Bell 
and the ^ \l( A. The area, w hile zoned for indus- 
trial uses, ha> been used for office, small-scale 
commercial and surface parking. Prior i<> \piil 1 ( ). 
the area was experiencing some economic decline. 
Since \|nil l ( >. i he area has experienced severe eco- 
nomic decline, w nil the los> <»l workers lre(|iienliiii 

the mam support businesses in the neighborhood, 
and several business either closing or moving to 
new locations a> a resuTl ol building damage. 

The common thread through all of the Districl 
Team presentations was die importance ol 
developing a well designed, sustainable and vital 
community thai included commercial and 
residential development and appropriate amenities 
such ih parks, da) care and recreation. Building 01 
this information, die national design team estab- 
lished the following goals, identified the strengths 
and weaknesses of the area, and developed recom- 
mendations to stimulate rebuilding in die area. 


Overall Goals 

Site Analysis 

Short term 

• Stabilize businesses through the allocation of 

• Develop a framework for wise, long-term 
decision-making by supporting the ongoing 
planning process for the area. 

Long term 
•Foster economic sustainabiliry. 

• Create pedestrian-active streets. 

• Enhance links to: 

St. Anthony's I [ospital 

Health Science Center 



MAPS projects 


City Stockyards 


• Enhance the identity and character of the differenl 
areas of the site. 


• The Murrah Building site is a focus for the larger 
area . 

• The timing for a rebuilding effort (e.g., the success 
of Paseo. Bricktown and Heritage I [ills) indicates 
a newly emerging awareness of downtown as a 
good place for entertainment and living. 

• The location is strategic. The site is accessible 

lo highways, between several strong employment 
centers, adjacent to the Central Business District 
and near residential and recreational districts. 

• The MAPS projects will center regional entertain- 
ment and arts activities in the downtown ana. 

• There are pioneering efforts already underway 
in Bricktown. 

• The street grid is interconnected, promoting 

• There is a stock of historic buildings dial provide 
a unique character to the area (Automobile \lle\. 
Church Bow). 

• The land values are depressed, facilitating 
change and risk taking, and making ii easier to 
enhance their value through zoning. 


• There is a large, undifferentiated >up|>l\ oi land. 

• The current zoning limits development 
opportunities for other than industrial uses. 

•There is competition from the oilier metropolitan 

• The currenl pattern of auto use, parking and 
tunnels i> counter to the expressed desire lor a 
1 1 lore pedestrian-friendl) environment. 


mplementation and Solutions 









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an "A" Street — pedestrian 
continuity streets, with highest 
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comfort, interest and security 
(few or no curb cuts; alley 
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Broadway is an example of 
a "B" Street — streets where 
design regulations may be 
more relaxed, allowing vehicular 
access across sidewalks. 

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Implementation and Solutions 


• The national design team strongly encourages 
the city to undertake a downtown planning 
process thai ties in MAPS., the upcoming I than 
Land Institute study the memorial planning 
process and ongoing planning for the study site. 

• Residential development is an important (dement 
in rebuilding a vibrant community. However, there 
is strong skepticism on the viability of residential 
development. The city should commission a down- 
town residential economic analysis to determine 
the market potentials, subsidies needed (if any), 
demand and capacity for residential development 
in the study site and surrounding downtown area. 

buildings, such as a community center, school or 
recreation can be added to support and enhance 
the existing activities and create a critical mass of 
development that will support neighborhood life. 

• Preserve the existing buildings, especiall) those 
that are historic or contribute to the character 
of the through streets. The city should encourage 
the banks to support loans that will he used to 
revitalize existing buildings. 

• Develop an overall downtown focus on the making 
of public spaces — streets, greens, squares and 
termination of vistas with public monuments or 
civic buildings. Do not extend the tunnel system. 
Minimize its importance b\ enhancing the life on 
the street. 

Next Steps/Considerations 

• Develop a micro-urban design plan for the sul>- 
areas of downtown. Build on the different design 
character and identities of the sub-areas. Develop 
design guidelines for each sub-area. 

• Revise the zoning ordinance to support the 
rebuilding process. The zoning should he build- 
ing type-, character- and density-based rather 
than floor Area Ratio (FAR). The ordinance 
should allow for mixed-use developments. New 
development should he compatible with existing 
heights, setbacks and he less use-oriented. 

'focus rebuilding efforts as tighih as possible 
l>\ building on existing activities. The above 
example shows that l>\ using Sycamore Squart 
as a cornerstone, additional housing and civic 

• Identify and establish a street hierarchy. Promote 
streel character specific to place with some narrower 
or wider sidewalks, different trees on different 
streets and different lighting (historic when known). 

Limit building heights by story and \ar\ these 
depending on the street. 

Establish A and B streets. : 'A" streets are pedestrian 
continuity streets, with highesl priority placed on 
pedestrian comfort, interest and security ilew or no 
curb cuts; alley access onl\. etc.) "B streets an- 
other streets where design regulations ma\ he more 
relaxed, allowing vehicular access across sidewalks. 
Robinson can become a pedestrian-connector 
street, linking Heritage Mills. North Downtown 
ami the Central Business District. Broadway. 5th. 
6th and 10th are important through streets. 






Robinson should become a 
pedestrian-connector street 
and an early-action catalytic 
project undertaken by the 
city as a visible sign that wod 
is in progress. 

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The following recommendations from 
the national design team are only the 
first step in an intensive planning and 
implementation process. 

Streets in general 

• Keep 5th and Oth Streets open n^ connectors. 
They are important through streets lor the area. 
Use traffic calming rather than closure. Examples of 
traffic calming include narrowing the cartway by 
widening the sidewalk or allowing parallel parking. 

• Narrow Robinson, an A street, to connect 
Heritage Hills to downtown: add bike trails. 

• Emphasize auto history/character of Broadway, 
a B Street: allow parking on side of buildings: 
control building heights and build to property 
lines: preserve what is there! Short streets should 
terminate in an important civic element. 

• Allow encroachments in the right-of-way to make 
sidewalks hospitable with trees, graphics, awnings. 
canopies and colonnades to get people out of tunnels. 

• Encourage pedestrian-friendly environments by 
allowing parallel parking along (lie sidewalk (as it 
protects the pedestrian) and slow traffic speed. 

•Require habitable frontage with clear glass on the 
First two stories. If parking is permitted on the 
first two stories, have habitable frontage al least 
20' deep al die streel level, (i.e.. On \ Streets, no 
exposed parking garages or lots on streel fronts: 
no exposed ramps to upper levels al front.) 

•Require vehicular access to lots from alleys on 
A streets. 

Open Land 
•Learn how to manage the open land so dial ii 
enhances die value of die area. 

•Vacant lots should be maintained and landscaped. 

establish landscaping along the streel from. 
•All parking lots should have a landscaping plan. 

• Ensure that the plans are completed within 1<"> 


• Expand the MAPS transportation links into North 
Downtown. I se of a shuttle bus or rubber tire 
trolley will reduce the need for the automobile 
and link die new development (commercial and 
residential) with the Central Business District. 

• Create a bicycle path from the residential areas 
through the downtown on A streets. 

Landscaping (General) 

• Enforce landscaping maintenance of vacant lots. 

• Develop and enforce landscaping of surface 
parking lots (interior and perimeter). 

Street Lights 

• Install pedestrian-scale street lights: van 
according to sub-areas. 

• Install special lighting lor Broadway (neon?). 

Building Preservation 

• Develop regulations to prevent the demolition of 
buildings for parking lots. (This should appl) in 
the study area. Bricktown and areas surrounding 
MAPS projects.) 

• Identify and designate identified historic structures. 

• Strengthen preservation regulations where needed. 

Infill Development 
•Infill with new: use existing building stock as the 

reference for building size and type. 
•focus and concentrate die development ol new 

buildings sequentially and as lighiK as possible 

io create urban places. 

Permit Process 

• Simplif) the permil process. 

•Recognize die inhereni code issues with old build- 
ings: make variance process clear ami predictable. 

• \\ here specific plans arc developed for an area, 
tic speed} permil approval to plan compliance. 


iarly Actions 

Early Actions: 

The city should commit to several 
immediate outcomes from the 
planning process. 

The national design team recommends thai early 
actions should focus on I >* >i 1 1 sides of the streel 
ai once. I)d a mega block rather than scatter 
improvements throughoul the district, rhis 
encourages inclusive design rather than exclusive 

•The <i(\ should support the efforts of the Districl 
Heams to complete their initial concepl plans, 
lhis process should be completed in one to i\\o 
months and will resull in a prioritized lisi of Ice} 
first steps. 

•Ensure thai the k<\ buildings thai comprise the 
Murrah Building she are protected from demolition 

and arc secured from further deterioration until 
such time as the final design is completed for the 
Murrah Building she. 

• The city, working with the Districl reams, should 
undertake an early-action catalytic projeel as a 
visible sign dial work is in progress. Broadway 
and Robinson arc two ol the mosl importanl 
streets in the area. Landscaping, lighting, and 
streel signage will signal, even n> the casual 
driver, thai things are changing. Robinson Vvenue 
can be narrowed l>\ adding parallel parking on 
both sides of the street; adding landscaping, 
lighting and signage will suggesl a pedestrian 


• Commercial or industrial developmenl alone will 
nol rebuild the area. Residential development is 
an importanl kev to bringing back a more vital and 
vibrant community. The citv should commission 
an economic analysis of the viability of residential 
developmenl in the downtown. This analysis will 
help determine the type of housing and potential 
subsidies or incentives reqi 

ruired to encourage 

• The city should develop a strategic downtown 
plan thai ties in the MAPS projects. Bricktown 
and the Urban Land Institute study with the 
plans for the study site. The MAPS projects and 
Bricktown will either support and enhance the 
ongoing rebuilding efforts or he seen as competing 
for limited resources and public energy. A strategic 
plan will clearly outline the relationships and 
benefits that can flow between the projects. The 
downtown plan will he an opportunity to affirm the 
commitment to why this is a special place and to 
decide il this tragedy has simply been a punctuation 
point or a pivotal point in the city s history 

•As the district plans are completed, the city should 
serve as the convener to identify funding sources 
for immediate/short-term projects such as land- 
scaping, facade improvements, image/graphic 
design, and lighting. These will be a signal to the 
citizens and investment community that North 
Downtown is coming back — new and improved. 

•The Sycamore Square project lias the potential 
to be the catalysl lor the first "neighborhood 
to be developed. This area can be the site for 
public improvements, such as recreation areas, 
a community center or a child care center. 
I lousing development should be encouraged. 
especially that which is low scale, urban in 

character, facing on neighbor!) I streets and 

linked by sidewalks or paths. 

•The MAPS projects should be reviewed to identify 
those projects that support the developmenl 
of mixed-use neighborhoods in the central city. 
Projects such as the trolley/transit link could be 
planned to run from the Central Business Distrid 
through North Downtown and out to the hospital 
or I [eritage I lills. 

•The city should update the zoning ordinance to 
stimulate mixed-use and residential developmenl 
in North Downtown, as well as adaptive reuse ol 
the historic buildings. 


The Murrah Building Site 



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The Murrah Building Site: 
The design team recommends the 
following guidelines as the citizen memorial 
committee begins its planning process. 

The tragedy thai occurred on April 1 ( ) happened 
in the contexl of the destruction of an area. It 
is difficult enough to imagine the damage to the 
Murrah Building. It is more difficult to under- 
stand if the building is taken out of the context 
of its relationship to the surrounding area. Just as 
an historic structure is considered in the context 
of its setting, so the Murrah Building should be 
considered. The national design team discussed 
the possible reuses of some of these structures, 
recognizing that the areas thai face directly on 
the site may not be immediately suitable for office 
space. Potential users of the space may include 
the Oklahoma I historical Society museum and art 
gallery space, and a site for interpretation of both 
the tragedy and the events that have occurred as 
a direct reaction. 

•The Murrah Building site is of national and 

international significance. 
• The development of this site should include both 

a symbolic and an interpretive response. 
•Adjacent buildings and uses should he incorporated 

in die plan. Available funding should be considered 

for the stabilization of the adjacent buildings. 

Design Competition 

The design of the memorial is a complex and 
sensitive issue. The national design team discussed 
the importance of balancing the concerns and input 
from all of the people interested in the project. 
Their recommendations on the process include: 

•A national or international competition as an 
appropriate approach for the symbolic part of 
the problem. 

•The competition might best be in two phases: 
the first, a broad design competition phase and 
the second, a more detailed design development 
thai might include the interpretive element. 

• The competition site should include the buildings 
surrounding the Murrah Building as shown in 
the shaded area on the map. 

• Fhe physical results of the memorial are 
extremely important to the development ol this 
part of the city. It need not be an impediment 
to other development. 

• Government at all levels should be encouraged 

to return to the neighborhood, using the memorial 
as its focus. 

•To ensure the highest quality of the memorial. 
a joint local and national board should be formed 
for the initiation and judging ol the competition. 

• Adjacent building owners and land users should 
be made part of the competition. 

•The entire block should be memorialized. 


lational Design Team Biographies 

Virginia Benson 

Associate Director; Community Design Exchange 

Virginia Benson is associate director of Community Design 
Exchange, a firm based in Seattle, Washington, and Ashburn, 
Virginia, specializing in public sector strategic planning and 
consensus building. A planner trained facilitator and mediator 
Ms, Benson was the former staff director of the Roanoke 
Neighborhood Partnership. She is the project manager for 
"Imagine Houston," a city-wide strategic planning process 
that has engaged thousands of citizens in charting the future 
policy direction for the city of Houston, Texas. Ms. Benson 
has recently completed several commumty-visioning processes 
including FUTURE — Little Rock, a citywide goal-setting 
process in Little Rock, Arkansas; Spotsylvania County 
Comprehensive Plan, Spotsylvania, Virginia; Horizon 2000, 
Michigan City, Indiana; and Vision 20/20 in Savannah, Georgia. 
She received a master's degree in business administration 
from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia; a bachelor's 
degree in environmental design from Nova Scotia College 
and studied architecture at Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 

Michael Donovan 

Partner, Donovan and Green 
New York, NY 

Michael Donovan is a designer whose work includes exhibi- 
tions, graphics, product design, interiors, and architectural 
signage. Since 1974, Mr Donovan has directed programs for 
major American corporations and institutions in a variety 
of applications. His work has won numerous awards from 
virtually every organization that holds competitions or 
recognizes excellence in advertising, graphics, and three 
dimensional/environmental design. He and his partner, 
Nancye Green, have lectured extensively at colleges and 
institutions, and frequently address business and related 
creative organizations. Mr. Donovan holds degrees from Iowa 
State University and Parsons School of Design, where he taught 
for several years in the Environmental Design Department. 
He was elected National Endowment for the Arts Fellow to 
the 1984 Aspen Design Conference, and was vice president 
of the American Institute of Graphic Arts/New York. He was 
the 1987 recipient of the Christian Peterson Design Award 
from Iowa State University Mr Donovan is a member of the 
Development Council to the College of Design at Iowa State, 
as well as a member of the Advisory Board to Parsons School 
of Design's Graphic Design Department. He is a member of 
the board of the Society of Environmental Graphic Designers. 

Nancye Green 

Partner; Donovan and Green 
New York, NY 

Nancye Green is a partner in Donovan and Green, a company 
designed to solve integrated communications problems. 
Founded in 1 974 with her partner, Michael Donovan, it is a 
reflection of their interest in employing the broadest array of 
media in shaping experiences that inform, entertain, educate, 
and sell. Prior to establishing Donovan and Green, Ms. Green 
was a consultant to the National Endowment for the Arts 
for the development of the Architects-m-the-Schools 
Program, and lectured extensively on her work in advocacy 
planning/design education. Her work in these areas was 
funded by the NEA. HEW, the Ford Foundation and others. 
She has served on the Challenge III Design Arts Advisory 
Panel for the NEA. She graduated from Newcomb College 
ofTulane University with honors in Political Science. After 
working for Time Inc., she went to Parsons School of Design, 
where she graduated cum laude in Environmental Design. 
Since then she has taught and lectured extensively across 
the country. Ms. Green was recently elected to the Board 
of Directors of Hallmark Cards, Incorporated. She is past 
president of both the American Institute of Graphic Arts and 
the International Design Conference in Aspen, and continues 
to serve as a member of the Board of Directors of the latter 
She is a member of the Young Presidents Organization. 


Hugh Hardy, FAIA 

Partner; Hardy Holzman Pfieffer Associates 
New York, NY 

A partner in Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates, Mr Hardy 
has been a practicing architect for more than 35 years. 
He began his career as a federal designer with the Army 
Corps of Engineers and formed his own firm in 1962, which 
received the 1981 Architectural Firm Award from the 
American Institute of Architects. His work is highly regarded 
for its rich expression of context and for the appropriateness 
of its response to the challenge of integrating new with old. 
Current projects include the rehabilitation of the New Victory 
and New Amsterdam Theaters on 42nd Street, and the 
renovation of Fiterman Hall at Borough of Manhattan 
Community College in New York and Whitaker Center for 
Science and the Arts in Harrisburg, PA. Past projects include 
the restoration and renovation of the Majestic Theatre, 
Brooklyn; the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, NY; 
and the legendary Rainbow Room at Rockefeller Center in 
midtown Manhattan. In 1988, he received the Benjamin 
West Clinedinst Medal of the Artists' Fellowship, Inc., for 
achievement of "exceptional artistic merit" and was cited 
as one of the Domino's "Top 30" Contemporary Architects 
in the world. Mr Hardy is an Academician of the National 
Academy of Design and in 1992 was appointed by the 
President to serve on the National Council of the National 
Endowment for the Arts. He has a bachelor of architecture 
degree and master of fine arts, architecture degree from 
Princeton University. 

Jennifer T. Moulton, AIA 

Director of and Development, City of Denver 
Denver, CO 

Jennifer Moulton is the director of planning and development 
for the city of Denver Ms. Moulton's career with the city has 
included work on a major redevelopment project involving 
major expanses of land, including Stapleton Airport, Lowry 
Air Force Base and new development of the Airport Gateway. 
Her current challenge is to move these projects into balance 
with the planning, zoning, housing and redevelopment efforts 
in the neighborhoods and central business district. Before 
her city appointment, Ms. Moulton was the president of 
Historic Denver. Prior to that she was a founding partner 
and Vice President of the firm of Anthony Pellacchia 
Architects. Ms. Moulton served on the Board of the Denver 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, as a trustee 
of the Colorado Historical Foundation, and as chairman of 
the Design Review Committee for the Central Denver Public 
Library. She received her master's in architecture from the 
University of Colorado. 

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk 

Principal, Duany and Plater-Zyberk 
Miami, FL 

Ms. Plater-Zyberk is a principal of Duany and Plater-Zyberk, 
Architects and Town Planners and Dean of the School of 
Architecture at the University of Miami. She was a founder 
an architecture firm. She has been a visiting professor and 
design critic at the University of Maryland, the University 
of Virginia and the Harvard Graduate School of Design, and 
was a member of the American Institute of Architects' 
National Design Committee. She has won awards from 
Architectural Record, Progressive Architecture, the Florida 
Association of the AIA and the South Florida Chapter of the 
AIA. Her designs and writings have been published and 
reviewed in numerous national and international publica- 
tions, including Progressive Architecture, Architectural Record, 
Time, The Wall Street journal, Metropolis and Vanity Fair. 
Plater-Zyberk's work has been shown in exhibitions at 
Harvard University, Yale University, Columbia University, the 
Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies, and the Cooper 
Hewitt, National Design Museum. Her best known project 
is Seaside, the award-winning new town in Florida. She holds 
a bachelor's degree in architecture and urban planning from 
Princeton University and a master's in architecture from Yale. 

Peter Walker 

Principal, Peter Walker, William Johnson and Partners 
San Francisco, CA 

Mr Walker is a landscape architect with 35 years of experience. 
The scope of his concerns has varied from the planning, 
design and development of cities and new communities to the 
design and crafting of small gardens. In his work, Mr. Walker 
searches beyond merely function solutions to shape outdoor 
spaces that are meaningful and memorable for the people 
who bring them to life. He was previously associated with 
SWA Group East, Sasaki/Walker Associates, Landscape 
Architects Associates, and Lawrence Halprin Associates. 
He was chairman, Department of Landscape Architecture, 
Harvard University's Graduate School of Design (1978-81); 
acting director, Urban Design Program, Harvard Graduate 
School of Design (1977-78); and visiting critic there (1958-59). 
He has served as a consultant and advisor to public agencies 
and institutions such as the Redevelopment Agency of 
San Francisco, the Port Authority of San Diego, Stanford 
University, the Universities of California and Washington, 
and the American Academy in Rome. He is a Fellow of the 
American Society of Landscape Architects and Institute for 
Urban Design. He holds a master of landscape architecture 
from Harvard University and received a bachelor of science 
from the University of California, Berkeley. 



Report of the Design Workshop Team 
July 24-25, 1995 

The Design Workshop was organized for the citizens of 
Oklahoma City by the National Endowment for the Arts, 
the city of Oklahoma City, the Arts Council of Oklahoma 
City and Second Century/Oklahoma City Urban Renewal 
Authority, with support from the General Services 
Administration, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban 
Development, and the U.S. Department ofTransportation. 

Special appreciation to the members of the six District 
Teams for their creativity, dedication and enthusiasm. Their 
efforts and commitment made the workshop successful. 

Team I 

Jim and Lehoma Gallagher Winifred M. Porter Mariana 
Hanska, Gus Gianos, Barbara Thompkins, Debbie Blackburn, 
Mr and Mrs. John D. Cheek, Allen Porter, Kelly Dixon, 
Mike Kertokjudy Kruse, Rick Mason, James Loftis, John Waldo, 
Fotis Bargeliotes.Thersa Reiss.Tim L. Presley, David Jones, 
Roger Hughes, Randy Hogan, Regina Blair, Nancy McNayr 

Team 2 

Jim Bruza, John Calhoun, Rand Elliot, Ron Frantz, Bill Guilford, 
Christopher and Meg Salyer Richard Semtner Julian Thompson, 
C.A. Leslie, jr, Mary Kay Leslie, Alfred A. Lindsay, Thomas Small 

Team 3 

John Ritter, Crystal Anderson, Cheri Oates, Joujou Wang, 

Johnny Ool, Shau Lin Hon, Troy Downing, Mr. and 

The Rev. Mrs. Charles Nesbitt, Lane Gross, Richard Howell, 

R. L, Mullinex, Susan Urbach, Gary Poole, Marilyn Smotherman, 

R. Scott Dedmon.JC Witcher Glenn Barnes, Judy Pitts 

Team 4 

Pete Schaffer Chris Wilson, Robert Glendening, 
Prof. Hermann Gruenwald, Sam Moore, Laura Tribble, 
Bob Mien Kyle Hancock 

Team 5 

Allen Brown, Rob Elliott, Julie NA/yatt, Michael D. Smith. 
Monty Murphy, Melissa Bergan, Eva Osborn, Robert Simmons, 
Eric Parham, Estelle Hassman, Dan McCullouth, Theresa Reiss, 
Pam Searcy 

Team 6 

John Sharp, Crystal Radcliff, Clare Woodside, Tony Blatt, 
Randy Floyd, Shane Labeth, Brian Larrimer, Deborah Dalton, 
Nick Harm, Jack Snoddy, R. Brett James 

Federal Agency Participants 
National Endowment for the Arts 
Samina Quraeshi, Director, Design Program 

Thomas Grooms, Program Manager, Federal Design 

General Services Administration 

Dale Lanzone, Director of Cultural and Environmental Affairs 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
Stephen Weatherford, Secretary's Representative, Southwest 

This report was prepared by the Design Program 

of the National Endowment for the Arts. 

Writer/Editor: Thomas Grooms 

Writer: Virginia Benson 

Design: Donovan and Green, New York, NY 

This report was produced under a cooperative agreement 
between the National Building Museum, Washington, DC, 
and the Design Program of the National Endowment for 
the Arts. 

Photo credits 

pages I , 2: Carolyn Bauman, courtesy Fort Worth Star Telegram 

2, 3: Sygma, New York 

4-9, 23: The Collections of the Oklahoma Historical Society 

10, 29,31-33, 38-39: David G. Fitzgerald, Oklahoma City 

28: Curtis Studios, Oklahoma City (photo of Mayor Nonck); 

David G. Fitzgerald (all other photos) 

45: John Dunning